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Brief description of RFID technology characteristics in different frequency bands

News posted on: 2019/5/29 1:08:21 - by Lynne - RFIDtagworld XMINNOV RFID Tag Manufacturer

Brief description of RFID technology characteristics in different frequency bands

Brief description of RFID technology characteristics in different frequency bands

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1 Low Frequency:

The frequency range used is 1 0 K H z ~ 1 M H z , and the main main specifications are 125KHz, 135KHz, etc. Generally, the electronic tags in this frequency band are passive, and energy supply and data transmission are performed by inductive coupling. The biggest advantage of the low frequency is that the label is less affected when the label is close to the metal or liquid item, while the low frequency system is very mature and the reading and writing equipment is inexpensive. However, the disadvantage is that the read distance is short, multi-tag reading (anti-collision) cannot be performed at the same time, and the amount of information is low. The general storage capacity is 128 bits to 512 bits. Mainly used in access control systems, animal chips, car alarms and toys. Although the low-frequency system is mature, the reading and writing equipment is inexpensive, but because of its low resonance frequency, the tag needs to make a winding inductance with a large inductance value, and often needs to package an off-chip resonance capacitor, and the cost of the label is higher than other frequency bands.


2 High Frequency:

The frequency range used is from 1MHz to 400MHz. The common main specification is the 13.156MHz ISM band. The label of this frequency band is still passive, and it is also the energy supply and data transmission through inductive coupling. The largest application in this band is the contactless smart card we are familiar with. Compared with the low frequency, the transmission speed is faster, usually above 100kbps, and multi-tag identification is possible (the international standards have mature anti-collision mechanisms).


The system in this frequency band benefits from the application and popularity of contactless smart cards, the system is relatively mature, and the price of reading and writing devices is relatively low. The most abundant products, storage capacity from 128 bits to more than 8K bytes, and can support very high security features, from the simplest write lock, to stream encryption, and even the encryption coprocessor. Generally used in identification, library management, product management, etc. For RFID applications with high security requirements, this band is currently the only option.


3 Ultra High Frequency:

The frequency range used is 400MHz~1GHz. The main main specifications are 433MHz and 868~950MHz. This band transmits energy and information through electromagnetic waves. Active and passive applications are common in this frequency band. Passive tag reading distances are about 3 to 10 m. The transmission rate is fast, generally up to 100 kbps, and because the antenna can be fabricated by etching or printing. relatively low. It is especially suitable for logistics and supply chain management because it has a long reading distance, fast information transmission rate, and can read and identify a large number of tags at the same time. However, the disadvantage of this band is that the application on metal and liquid items is less than ideal and the system is still immature. The cost of reading and writing equipment is very expensive, and the cost of application and maintenance is also high. In addition, the safety characteristics of this band are general and are not suitable for applications with high safety requirements.


4 Microwave :

The frequency range used is above 1 GHz, and the common specifications are 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. The characteristics and application of the microwave band are similar to those of the ultra-high frequency band, and the reading distance is about 2 meters, but the sensitivity to the environment is high. Since the frequency is higher than the ultra-high frequency, the size of the label can be made smaller than the ultra-high frequency, but the attenuation of the signal in the water band is higher than that of the ultra-high frequency, and the working distance is also smaller than the ultra-high frequency.


Generally used in baggage tracking, item management, supply chain management, etc.


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